Do Sharks Lay Eggs or Give Live Birth?

Sharks are fascinating creatures that have captured the imaginations of humans for centuries. Their sleek bodies, rows of sharp teeth, and powerful presence in the ocean make them both feared and revered.

However, when it comes to their reproductive methods, there is often confusion and misconception. One of the most common questions asked about sharks is whether they lay eggs or give live birth.

In this article, we will delve into the intriguing world of shark reproduction to uncover the truth behind this enigmatic question.

By exploring different species, their unique adaptations, and the factors influencing their reproductive strategies, we aim to shed light on this captivating aspect of shark biology.

So join us as we dive into the depths of knowledge to unravel whether sharks lay eggs or give live birth.

Do Sharks Lay Eggs or Give Live Birth

Do Sharks Lay Eggs or Give Live Birth?

Sharks use a variety of reproductive techniques, and not all species do so in the same way. While some shark species give birth to eggs, others give birth to live young.

Sharks can be broadly divided into two types and of them, 40% of shark species are oviparous, which means that they lay eggs as a part of their particular reproductive process. 

Oviparous Sharks

Sharks that lay eggs are oviparous. Before being laid, the male shark’s internal fertilization allows the female shark to generate eggs. The eggs are subsequently placed in secure areas, including rocky crevices or seafloor habitats. 

The pups, or young sharks, exit from the egg capsule when the eggs hatch and continue their development on their own. Some species of catsharks and bamboo sharks are examples of oviparous sharks.

Viviparous sharks

These sharks give birth to live young, which means the embryos develop inside the female’s body. The baby sharks are born as fully mature pups and are fed by a device like a placenta.

The pups of some viviparous animals engage in a type of oophagy in which they consume unfertilized eggs or their younger siblings while still inside their mother’s womb. Great white sharks, hammerhead sharks, and bull sharks are a few examples of viviparous sharks.

What species of shark lay eggs?

Several species of sharks are oviparous, meaning they lay eggs as part of their unique reproductive process.

One such group is the catsharks (Family Scyliorhinidae), which encompass a diverse array of small to medium-sized sharks found in various ocean habitats around the world.

Many species within this family are oviparous, producing egg cases that protect developing embryos until they are ready to hatch.

Bamboo Sharks

Bamboo sharks are another example of oviparous sharks. These small, slender sharks primarily inhabit shallow tropical waters and lay eggs with embryos developing externally.

Their egg cases often have distinct shapes and textures, enabling them to anchor to the seabed and provide protection during the incubation period.

Horn Sharks

Horn sharks are characterized by their small size and unique spines in front of their dorsal fins. They are also oviparous, laying eggs that are sometimes referred to as mermaid’s purses.

These egg cases are distinctive in appearance and offer protection to the developing embryos as they grow.

Port Jackson Shark

The Port Jackson shark is a species of bullhead shark found in southern Australia. This species lays egg cases with long tendrils that anchor them to the seabed, securing the eggs in place until they hatch.

Swell Sharks

Swellsharks are small, nocturnal sharks inhabiting the eastern Pacific Ocean. They too are oviparous, producing eggs with unique spiral patterns on their egg cases.

Chain Catshark

Another oviparous shark is the chain catshark found in the western Atlantic Ocean. This species lays elongated egg cases with a chain-like appearance, adding to the diversity of shark egg morphology.

What Species of Shark Give Live Birth?

Many shark species exhibit viviparity, which is a remarkable adaption that involves giving birth alive. The most remarkable method of effectively reproducing that these ancient organisms have developed is viviparity. 

The Great White Shark, Hammerhead Shark, Bull Shark, Tiger Shark, Nurse Shark, Lemon Shark, and Whitetip Reef Shark are just a few well-known examples of viviparous sharks among the many different shark species.

Great White Shark 

One of the most well-known sharks in the world is without a doubt the Great White Shark. These apex predators are well-known for their enormous size, tremendous power, and astute hunting skills. 

Female Great Whites have an unusual reproductive system in which they carry a few, fully-formed embryos inside their bodies for nine to twelve months.

The embryos have more time to develop and become more independent throughout this prolonged gestation period before they are ready to be born. Following this time, the female gives birth to live puppies, often numbering 2 to 10.

Hammerhead Sharks 

Hammerhead Sharks are distinguished by their characteristic hammer-shaped heads. The Scalloped Hammerhead and the Great Hammerhead are two examples of the many hammerhead species that practice viviparity. 

For several months, female hammerhead sharks carry their embryos and feed them via a placental link. The puppies are well-developed and better prepared to confront the challenges of their environment after birth thanks to this approach.

Bull Shark

A highly adaptable species that can survive in both saltwater and freshwater habitats is the bull shark.

Because they can control their internal salt levels, female bull sharks have a special reproductive advantage that enables them to give birth in rivers and estuaries.

Bull sharks typically have litters of 1 to 13 young and go through a gestation period of 10 to 11 months.

Tiger Shark 

In warm ocean waters, the Tiger Shark is a sizable and potent predator. Tiger shark females are viviparous and give birth to their pups after 13 to 16 months.

This prolonged gestation time helps to produce pups that are well-developed and have a higher chance of surviving after delivery.

Tiger sharks are capable of having litters of 10 to more than 80 pups.

Nurse Sharks

Nurse Sharks are mostly nocturnal and are renowned for their calm demeanor. Additionally, these sharks are viviparous, allowing their young to develop into larger, more independent animals before birth.

Before giving birth to quite large pups, female nurse sharks hold their growing embryos for roughly six months.

Lemon Shark

Negaprion brevirostris, often known as the lemon shark, is frequently seen in coastal areas, especially in the western Atlantic Ocean.

Female Lemon Sharks go through viviparity and raise their young for ten to twelve months. The species typically has litter sizes that range from 4 to 17 pups per delivery.

Whitetip Reef Shark

Reef shark is well adapted to reef habitats and is frequently spotted napping on the seafloor during the day. These sharks have a gestation period of almost 10 months and exhibit viviparity.

Whitetip Reef Shark females give birth to a small litter, usually between 1 and 6, of young.


Which sharks produce spiral eggs? 

One type of shark well-recognized for laying spiral eggs is the Port Jackson shark. These tiny sharks, which can be found in the coastal seas of southern Australia, produce egg cases with a definite spiral flange. 

The eggs are stabilized and protected during the incubation stage thanks to the spiral flange that assists to anchor the eggs to the substrate. It is simpler to recognize and separate them from other shark species due to the distinctive look of their egg casings.

What does a shark egg look like?

Shark eggs, also called “mermaid’s purses,” are shaped like long, tapering rectangles. They safeguard the growing embryo inside by becoming strong and leathery. Dark brown to black is the color range, and some species may have lighter patterns or markings. 

The length can range from a few centimeters to over 20 centimeters, depending on the kind of shark. The majority of shark eggs share these common qualities, ensuring the survival of the developing embryo until it is ready to hatch even though each species may have particular traits.

Are shark eggs edible? 

Generally speaking, most societies do not eat shark eggs. Although some traditional fishing tribes may use shark eggs in their diets, they are not generally regarded as a staple food. 

Additionally, it is critical to give sustainable fishing methods and conservation initiatives top priority due to worries about falling shark populations and the significance of protecting marine ecosystems. 

It is crucial to refrain from consuming shark goods to safeguard these vulnerable species because eating shark eggs or any other shark products can contribute to the decline of shark populations and upset the balance of marine ecosystems.

Are sharks born young? 

Indeed, sharks are born as fully developed, self-sufficient young. They are viviparous, which means they give birth to live children. Shark pups are born with developed features and can swim and hunt right away, in contrast to many fish that hatch from eggs.

The newborn sharks have a better chance of surviving in their frequently dangerous maritime surroundings because of this reproductive approach.

Do sharks nurse their pups?

Sharks do not breastfeed their young in a similar manner to mammals. However, they use a placental link to provide nutrition and protection for their offspring while they are in the womb. 

The mother’s body provides nutrition to the developing embryos while they are inside her until birth as fully developed, independent babies. The pups are left to fend for themselves after birth and do not receive any additional care or food from their mother.